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What is Biology?
Biology is the science of life and living organisms, such as plants, animals or microorganisms. The word biology comes from two ancient Greek words: bios (“life”) and logos (“word, opinion, reason”). The word was originally coined in order to describe the study of living organisms by observation and experimentation.
Biology is all about the search of the laws and rules of living organisms. Biology is a scientific discipline that deals with living organisms as an object of research [or ontic sciences]. The definition of ‘theory’ in biology is often not very clear but it states that it is an explanation or a physical or mathematical model which can be used to explain a phenomenon.
Categories Of Biology
Botany– is the study of plant life, including the structure, development, growth, reproduction, disease and evolution of plants. An organism that is not a plant is a plant if it lives like one. If an organism has certain characteristics attributed to plants then that organism can be defined as being ‘plant-like’. For example most mollusks (such as clams) and insects do not produce food through photosynthesis and therefore would not be considered plants. Other organisms could be described as ‘plant-like’ if they are more closely related to plants than animals. For example, many fungi are considered plants because they either need sunlight to grow (they are autotrophs) or feed off of plants (symbiotic) or both.
Chromatography -is an analytical technique used in the separation, identification and quantitation of macromolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids on the basis of differences in physical properties such as polarity, porosity, light absorption etc..
Chromatography is used in a wide array of biology applications including: drug discovery, microbiology, environmental biotechnology and forensic science. Chromatography is used to separate mixtures into its components.
Microbiology– is the study of microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses, the study of the life processes of all living organisms [including their structure, function and interactions]. Microbiology forms a large part of biological sciences. The subdisciplines are also sometimes distinguished among the applied (such as microbiology and mycology), fundamental (such as microbial genetics), and theoretical disciplines (such as molecular biology). Microbiology is the study of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes (a group including protists, fungi and humans). Bacteria are single-celled, microscopic organisms that are highly diverse to form an integral part of any ecosystem. A bacterium can be a simple unicellular organism or a collective of cells or the multicellular structures called “biofilms”.
Biochemistry -is the study of chemical processes within living cells and tissue [which encompasses molecular biology]. Studies in biochemistry range from the study of individual molecules to complex metabolic pathways involving hundreds or thousands of interacting enzymes that regulate life. Biochemistry is an interdisciplinary science that deals with the chemical reactions and pathways of all organisms, as well as their structural and functional organization.
Genetics– is the study of the hereditary material in living things. It is commonly used to describe hereditary characteristics passed on from parents to offspring. However, there are other types of inheritance such as epigenetics, a recent discovery that describes inheritance through changes in the genetic code without changing the DNA sequence itself (e.g., an inversion or change in methylation or hydroxymethylation). Genetics is a field that studies the structural and functional aspects of genes, and how they affect the way an organism develops. Genes determine characteristics, such as eye color, height, and intelligence in humans.
Ecology– is the study of interactions between organisms in an area and their environment. The subject matter ranges from the evolution of communities to interactions among species in ecosystems. Biological systems often involve more than one “component” (a combination of organisms or environmental factors). For example, air quality and climate are considered “environmental components”. The study of ecological processes is called ecological processes.
Importance Of Biology
- Biologist’s study all living things on Earth.
- Biologists find cures for diseases, like cancer, HIV and AIDS
- Biologists are also concerned with protecting endangered animal species from extinction
- Biologists are able to identify new medicines that may treat medical conditions
- Reputable biologist are also concerned with environmental issues including global warming and finding ways to slow down the process of global warming
- Biologists can be helpful in the job market because they tend to know a lot about their jobs, which is why they are often hired as consultants by banks or insurance companies.
- Biologist has been given the title of biologists because they study living things, not just animals but plants, insects and even humans.
Topics Studied Under Biology
- Allergy and immunology
- Clinical Psychology
- Comparative Anatomy
- Cell and Developmental Biology
- Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
- Medical Sciences
- Biomedical Science
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Molecular Biology
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