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What is Electronic Controls Engineering?
Electronic controls engineering (ECE) is the application of electronics and technologies to the interpretation and execution of control functions. This includes electric power systems, manufacturing, robotics, computing machines and embedded systems as well as other types of automatic control devices.
The world has progressed in leaps and bounds during the last few centuries, revolving around a series of technological innovations that have made human life much easier and more convenient than it once was. One such innovation is what we now know as electronics engineering. A pivotal invention in the history of electronics was the relay, which allowed for simple and reliable control of electric devices. The invention of the first quartz crystal oscillator led to greatly increased accuracy. The practical use of radio waves to transmit signals led to the development of radar signals and advanced technology such as remote control.
The auxiliary field of electronics, known as electronic controls engineering (ECE), has been vital to many industrial processes and has helped enhance new products and provide better performance from existing technologies.
Types Of Electronic Controls
Electrical control systems are composed of several controlled elements to form a complete system.
- Feedback systems are used in process control. The controlled element is usually a thermometer.
- Mutually-coupled control systems are also used in process control. In this type of electronic controls, the controlled element is usually a motor/generator or an actuator such as a valve.
- Linear time invariant (LT) systems are used in direct digital control and other forms of digital controls. For an LT system, the controlled element is usually a digital signal processing (DSP) processor.
- Nonlinear time invariant (NTI) systems are used in direct digital control and other forms of digital controls. For an NTI system, the controlled element is usually a DSP processor or analog signal processing (ASP) processor such as a computer A/D or multiplier.
- Analog systems are used in analog signal processing and analog signal processing related electronic systems. These electronic controls are frequently referred to as analog controlled by a computer.
- Perturbation control systems are used in nonlinear control systems such as those that use semiconductor devices, pulse-width modulated (PWM) drives, and adaptive control system.
- Computerized systems are the most used form of electronic controls. These systems are generally used in applications that are fairly straightforward and simple.
- Networked electronic controls are often used in applications that require multiple electronic control systems working together. Many examples of this type of application include factory automation for assembling large groups of products or robots carrying out various processes that would otherwise be individually too complex to carry out by themselves.
Importance Of Electronic Controls Engineering
Reduce Injuries- The use of automation in production reduces the likelihood of accidents and injuries associated with repetitive manual operations. As an example, robots are used in some cases to provide greater control while welding, so if any contact is made between workpiece and robot (i.e., finger), it is typically a light touch rather than grinding contact.
Enhanced Quality- With the use of sensors to monitor and adjust production, a product can be produced with a higher level of consistency. For instance, robotic cells and their programmable logic controllers (PLCs) allow for precise control over operations such as welding.
Improve Safety- The use of sensors helps to improve the security of workers on a production floor. Sensors can be used to detect any potential danger, giving plant operators adequate time to react and prevent accidents.
Safety and Health- The use of sensors for automated production also provides a more accurate monitor of the safety of workers, especially when using machine tools. This provides clarification on machine settings, providing users with increased safety by following safety policies and procedures.
Improved Product Quality- Electronic controls give manufacturers the ability to control the temperature and speed at which a product is processed or fabricated. The result is improved quality in products; this can be seen by improvements in quality while drilling, milling, or fabricating components.
Lower Energy and Water Consumption- The use of sensors in automated manufacturing provides plant operators with the ability to monitor and manage energy or water consumption during production. This can be done using industrial controls, which can reduce a company’s total operating expenses.
Improved Worker Productivity- Electronic controls allow workers to work smarter, not harder. By increasing efficiency of production lines with the use of sensors and programmable logic controllers (PLCs), companies are able to produce more products in less time.
Lower Manufacturing Costs- The use of sensors in automated equipment helps improve the reliability of manufacturing and reduces the impact of downtime on production schedules. For instance, by monitoring the water and gas temperatures in a furnace, the likelihood that a process will shut down due to overheating is reduced.
Topics Studied Under Electronic Controls Engineering
- Electronic controls engineering
- Theory of Computations
- Engineering circuits (e.g., controllers, power systems)
- Signals and Systems
- Industrial Automation Systems
- Process Control Systems
- Industrial Engineering & Production Management
- Computer Communication Networks
- Digital Computer Systems
- Digital Signal Processing
- Artificial Intelligence
- Computer Networks and Communication Protocols
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