Until recently, changes in climate are emerging as a definitive environmental, social, economic as well as a political concern of our era.  Generally, climate change includes shifts in the magnitude and frequency of sporadic weather events and a steady rise in global temperatures. Climatic change does not only include global warming but also other physical changes including the occurrence of droughts and floods, precipitation, intensity and frequency of storms as well as melting of West Antarctic and Greenland’s which would result in a rise of sea level as well as changes in the circulation of oceans. A lot of controversies exists as to the contribution of greenhouse gases to increasing temperatures. However, scientists are confident that temperatures are likely to continue rising in decades to come because of the emission of greenhouse gases that is large as a result of human activities.  According to The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), changes in climate is expected to vary differently over time in different regions.

Build up in temperature typically brings changes in weather patterns. It involves modification of seasonal cycles, increases in the number of hot days, changes in precipitation patterns and extreme weather events such as droughts, hail storms and wind storms which are anticipated to affect agriculture. Such impact would also be associated with effects such as erosion, flooding, hurricanes excess soil moisture, an outbreak of pestilence and break of wildfires. Climatic changes also disrupt biotic interactions such as predator and prey interaction as well as changes in the composition of the ecosystem. Climate change can affect individual organisms, distribution of species, populations, functions, and composition of the ecosystem both directly and indirectly. In addition, depletion of natural resources as a result of increased demographic and environmental pressure tends to accelerate the severity of the impact of climate change. Indeed, vulnerabilities to the impact of climate change is worsened in part due to human-related issues including deforestation, industrial emissions (atmospheric aerosols) overgrazing, poor soil qualities, low input farming systems, decreasing fallow periods and recurring droughts.

Moreover, changes in climate over the years are expected to result in mass extinction, change in patterns of such as reproduction, blooming and migration. Since species respond differently, climate changes may altogether result in a mismatch in timing of breeding, migration, pest avoidance, and food availability thus reducing the growth and survival of the same. It goes without saying that climate changes. To date, the effects of gradual changes in climate as well as extreme weather events have undermined efforts in alleviating food insecurity and poverty whilst also creating a negative impact on economic sectors that depend on agriculture and fishery. Changes in climate including rising temperatures as well as the impact of global warming are likely to have prolonged effects on agriculture, including frequent heat waves, floods, precipitations and droughts in some regions.

Climate changes have the capability to adversely disrupt our food supply whilst driving the costs upwards affecting everything from staple food to our roses in the backyards as well as meat and marine. Changes in climate also have substantial implications for our health. Changes in temperatures as well as global warming will likely result to an increase in air pollution, longer periods of allergies, asthma, the spread of insect-borne diseases, intense and dangerous heat waves as well as heavier rainstorms which may altogether pose serious cost and risk to the public health. It is evident that climate changes have the potential to seriously affect us in multiple ways. Since most of the problems in climate changes are initiated by humans, there is much that humans can do to reduce, mitigate and altogether adapt to the effects of climate changes.