MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)
A brilliant writer is advised to save his or her personal copies of electronic information for future reference. In this, process a researcher Because research work is a continuous processes it is good for one to be printing or saving web pages in software like Adobe Acrobat. Web browsers use URL, which are easy to refer to in future. The Bookmark function is used to aid a writer in finding past used sources.
MLA deploys the word, “Accessed” to refer to the exact date that one accessed the web page. This fact is not necessary but it is encouraged in situation where no copyright date is provided.
Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA
An URL or web address in MLA style aids the readers in locating the sources used. It is known that the web addresses are not static and may change any time,so it is advisable to always identify the web address used. In addition, a document or the certain information used can appear in a variety of web address, thus MLA recommends one to use citing containers like Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix because they are easy to access and be verified. MLA does not require the whole https:// kind of citing but rather it recommends only referring to it in the format of www. address.
Note that MLA style prefer one to cite using DOI (digital object identifier) if provided and it is a common occurrence for scholarly articles to include the DOI then it should be used.
In some cases online newspapers and magazines use a “permalink” (shortened stable version of a URL). To find if a permalink is used hit on the “share” or “cite this” button and then use it instead of a URL.
Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources
The kinds of abbreviations used in case page numbers are not provided are; par. or pars. To represent paragraph number(s). Theyare placed the same point where the p. or the pp. abbreviations mark should be.
Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)
The example below provides a clear view of the mandatory features that should be traced before citing any electronic sources. It is not always necessary that the source will provide all the information listed below but try as much as possible to gather as much as possible for the citations and research.
- Author and/or editors names.
- Name of the article.
- Title of the website, book, or project in italics.
- Version numbers if available, editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (no.).
- Name of publisher and date of publication
- Page numbers (p. pp.) or paragraph numbers (par. or pars.).
- Find the DOI and if not available note the URL (eliminate the https://) or permalink.
- Note the information was accessed (Date Accessed). It is not much need but it plays a great role in supporting the existence of pages that change frequently.
- Include containers in your basic citations. Some containers include a collection of short stories or poems, television series, and even a website. A container is described as defined a part of a broad body of work.
The following format is always recommended
Author.Title. Title of Container (self container if it’s a book), Other contributors (translator or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/ or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs and or URL, DOI or permalink). 2nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).
Citing an Entire Web Site
The reason that one is required to list the date of access is because most web postings are updated severally and there is a possibility of the posting never to be posted again in a later date. It is a recommendation that one uses the whole web address in cases where you are citing using URLs; just eliminate the https;// part.
Author or Editor, or however compiled the work, Name of Site. Version number, Name of institutional/ organization associated with the site (sponsor or publisher), Date of creation, URL, DOI or permalink. Date of Access.
Gabriela, Paulo. Illiteracy among Sub-Saharan Families. African Updates, 5 Dec. 2004, www.cla.africanupdates.au/english/theory/. Accessed 9 may 2008.
Course or Department Websites.
Ensure listing the name of the instructor and then enter the title of the course or the designated school catalog of the course in italics. In addition, provide the required department and school names in the following format.
Gabriela, Paulo. Illiteracy among Sub-Saharan Families. African Updates, Mar. 2007, web.ics.africanupdates.au/gabriela/254/254/Home.html. Accessed 26 Mar. 2010.
Anatomy Department. Purdue U, 21 Mar. 2012, www.au.purdue,edu/english/.
A Page on a Web Site
In the case of an individual web page, enter the author’s name or alias, followed by the information covered that has been exampled above for the whole Web sites. When the publisher is the same as the website then list it once.
“Abortion – Body Review.”WebMD, 4 Oct. 2011, www.webmd.com/human-destructive-behaviour/tc/abortion-body-review.
Kruger, Eva. “Dealing with Emotional Distress.”eWeb, www.eweb.com/dealing_12502_with-emotional-distress.html.Accesses 4 June 2012.
An Image (Including a painting. Sculpture, or Photograph)
In this type of work, provide the name of the artist, the work of art in italics, followed by the date of creation, then the institution and city where the work is made. Continue with the initial entry listing the name of the Website in italics, and date when it was accessed.
Fernando, Julia. Casablanca XII. 1845. Madison Art Shop, New York. Madison Art Shop, www. Madisonartshop.es/en/the-collection/art-work/Casablanca-IIX/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 23 May 2008.
Miller, Tom. Mona Lisa. 1982. Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, The Art center, www.artcenter.com/artcenter/K/klee/mona_lisa.jpg.html. Accessed March 2001.
If it appears on the web only then give the name of the artist, the title of the work, followed by the citation format for a website. In case it is the use name that is provided then enter the username in place of the author.
Smith, David Jones. “Effects of Global Warming on Animal Habitats in Phoenix, Arizona, 1947.” Found WildLife Review, 3 July 2014, wildlifefound.tumblr.com/.
An Article in Web Magazine
Give the author name, name of the article in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, name of publisher, date of publication, URL, and the date of access.
Palumbo, Paulo. “How to Upgrade a Computer.”Devices: Installation of Modern Operating Systems, 18 Aug. 2003, devices.com/article/upgradeingcomputers. Accessed 5Feb. 2009.
An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal
In the case of all online scholarly journals, enter the author(s) name(s), then the name of the article in quotation marks, followed by the title of the publication in italics, and then provide all volume and issue numbers, year of publication. Finally enter the URL, DOI, or permalink to aid the reader in locating the source.
Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal.
MLA style exclusively is of dire need of page numbers for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. One may find out that the journal can only be found in an online format thus in this case then use of page numbers is not necessary, one is required to indicate the URL, DOI or permalink.
Austen, Mark. “Discovering a Career in youths: Choosing the Right Career.”Social Mentors and Society: Career Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, 2006, www.socmentors.net/sws/article/view/60/362.Accessed 15 July 2010.
Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print
It is preferable to cite the articles that are in online scholarly journals and appear in print the same as the scholarly journal in print, while including the page range of the articles. It is of essence to provide the URL and the date of access.
Dolby, Nadine. “Emergence of Ebola in Southern Central Africa.”Emerging diseases, vol. 3, no. 6, 2001, pp. 78-101, www.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0709_article.Accessed 14 Feb 2007.
An article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)
One should cite online databases (LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and others as containers. Meaning the format will be; enter the title of the database in italics before the DOI or URL then finalize by giving the date of access.
Marti, Alphonso, and Kimberly Jones. “Waste eliminated by Ships causing Ocean Hazards.” Environmental Toxicology, vol. 12.No. 7. 17 Feb. 2009, pp. 56-69. New York Library, doi:10.1002/tox.45001.
Camargo, Julia. “Male Chauvinism in Early America.”Historical Review, vol. 16, no. 4, 2009, pp.78-89.Proquest, doi:10.1017/S00028246X090005966. Accessed 25 March 2007.
E-mail (including E-mail interviews).
Provide the author of the communicated message, then the subject line in quotation marks. Illustrate the person the message was meant for with the phrase, “Received by” and give the recipient’s name. also give the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization in the entry.
Henry, Mark. “ Re: Sports Practises.” Recevied by Kane Bruno, 6 Nov. 2003.
Villa, David. “Re: Online Tutorial.” Received by Bruce Willis, 1 Dec. 2014.
A Listserv, Discussion group, or Blog Posting
Follow the same format used to cite the standard web entry to cite web postings. Start with the author of the work, then the title of the posting in quotation marks, followed by the web site name in italics, and the posting date and end with the date of access. In cases where the names of the author is not known then use screen names and if both the authors name are known put then in brackets.
Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name. “Posting Title.”Name of Site, Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of Access.
Salvado [Michelangelo]. “ Re: Broad light Exposure to Laser Heat.” BoardGameGeek, 27 Jan. 2004, boardgamegeek.com/social/342564/broad-light-exposure-to-laser.Accessed 21 Jun. 2006.
Start off with listing the user’s Twitter handle where the name of the author appears. Secondly, enter the tweet in quotation, inserting a period after the tweet also in the quotations. Enter the date and the time of posting, using the reader’s time zone (remember to separate the date and the time with a comma and end with a period. Finalize with elaborating the date the tweet was accessed.
@evansbroker. “Campaign for the Democrats going Lightly.” Twitter,23 Feb, 2013, 4:27p.m.,twitter.com/evansbroker/status/17000023658941..
@hailydavos. “Will be a great weekend, come for dental visit.”Twitter, 4 Oct. 2014, 14:23 p.m., twitter.com/hailydavos/status/14526784512036.
A YouTube Video
Videos and audio sources follow the same basic guidelines that are used for citing print sources in MLA style. It is imperative to fetch as much information as possible to help the reader in understanding the type and kind of source you are citing. In case the author is the same as the uploader then cite the name of the author once. Contrary if the author and the uploader are not the same then cite the author’s name before the title.
“How to Make Strawberry Pancakes.”Youtube, uploaded by Peter Tosh, 7 July 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.
Isaac, Gregory. “Functional Alcoholism.”YouTube, uploaded by Fred McGregor, 5 August 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=kmdzy9bWW3E.
A Comment on Website or Article
Enter the username in place of the author. Place the phrase, comment on, before the title. Put quotation marks around the article title. Then name the publisher followed by the date, time that is shown on the comment, and finalize with the URL.
Social activist. Comment on “How to replace trees with advance agroforestry.” BBC News, 15 Jun 2003, 9:14 a.m. bbcnews.go.com/how-to-place-trees-with-advance-agroforestry/story?id=256987410.