How To Cite Endnotes and Footnotes in MLA Format?


MLA Endnotes and Footnotes

MLA scholarly work recommend use of limited MLA endnotes and footnotes because it has been proven that long explanatory notes are a distraction to readers or audience. Also in the industry, there is the presence of publishers who encourage note references in lieu of parenthetical references.

The MLA style limits excess usage of explanatory notes but allows the use of endnotes or footnotes for bibliographic notes that represent other sources that a reader may consult. Some of the examples are:

  1. See Warner, find emphasis on chapter 4 and 5, to embrace this idea.
  2. About the factors that cause heart attack, consult Fitch 64-68; for symptoms, see Marti 78; Ransom. Kruger, Sydney 17-25; Austen 47-52.
  3. Further studies also support these ideas. See Simone and Hill 63-78, Sean 12-18, Zvi 37-43.

On the other hand endnotes and footnotes can be used in other times as explanatory notes (content notes) that represent extra information that might be too digressive for the main text.

  1. In the recent interview, he put it clear that: “I am electrician and not a scientist” (McKenzie 56).

Numbering endnotes and footnotes in the document body

The format that endnotes and footnotes take in MLA  is an additional superscript Arabic number after the punctuation of the phrase or clause that is being referred.

  • Through research, it has been proven that the findings will be prosperous.6
  • In this kind of progress,7 extra measures has been place to make sure final products will be efficient.
  • In case where there is a dash in the text, then the footnote/endnote number should appear before the dash.
  • The research has taken quite a considerable period of time 8 – and resources to reach this point.

Note that one should never use asterisks (*), angle brackets (>), or other symbols in the note references. Ensure that the list of endnotes and footnotes are listed in a separate page and should correspond with the note references used in the main text.

Formatting endnotes and footnotes With Example.

Endnotes page

In MLA, all the notes that have been used in the text are listed in a separate page with a title Notes that is centered and note formatted. Use the singular form Note if there is only one note and it should be placed before the Works Cited page. This point is crucial for documents that are to publicized.

One should be precise and make sure that the notes are listed by consecutive Arabic numbers that are similar to the ones in the text. Ensure that notes are double-spaced. Place the first line of each endnote with a five space indent; and subsequent lines are flush with the left margin. It is also necessary to place a period and a space after each endnote number. As shown In the Example Below.

Footnotes (below the text body)

The MLA 8th edition unfortunately does not show how to format footnotes, so for extra guidance one is advised to visit the MLA Style Center on this topic or seek your instructors and editors preference.