Planet earth is endowed with a massive reservoir of oil entangled deep underneath the earth surface. Frequently, the reservoir forms fractures leading to oil spillage. Notably, many other times, oil spills occasioned by negligence causing damage to the ecosystems. The occurrences of the oil spill have enormous effects on the environment and to a human being. During oil spills, the crude liquid is discharged into the ecosystem through carriers, liners or pipelines. Petroleum oil may also be emitted by tankers on land while in water mass the oil spillage might be as a result of drilling rigs, offshore oil platforms. What is synonymous with the oil spill is the permanent damage it causes and the prolonged time it takes to clean it up.

One of the common effects of oil spill is an environmental effect. Marine animals that live in water or adjacent to the shores are mostly affected by the oil spill. Typically, the oil cuts the supply of oxygen into the water and chokes the aquatic fauna to death. Besides that, the oil spills infiltrate into the skin and plumage of the birds. The resultant effects are that birds, as well as mammals, have difficulties in floating in water or control their body temperatures. The effects of oil spill cause the young mammals and birds to die out of hunger, as their parent may not locate them with their natural body scent. In certain instances, the oil spill causes blindness to animals when exposed to the oil. Furthermore, the oil spill has economic effects in the sense that the amount of crude oil spilled means that there is a continuous reduction in the available amount. They are financial implications that come with the oil spill especially during cleaning up the process and when replenishing barrels lost from the spillage. During the cleaning up process, the workers are exposed to health hazards which have future health implications in their later lives putting them under continuous medical treatment.

Certain mechanisms have been formulated towards prevention of oil spills. Oil companies such as Shell, have devised a multi-layered control system designed to mitigate risks. Prior to drilling exploration, seismic and surveys are conducted to provide the essential information about the geology of the seabed. As a mechanism for preventing the oil spill, the well is cautiously designed according to the global standards of at least two independent barriers. Similarly, the availability of detectors down the well conveys real-time details relating to pressure and temperature back to the operation center. As such, any substantially dangerous fluctuations would be registered immediately and the pressure adjusted.

Apparently, federal laws have been formulated for instance in the United States, that provides oil companies with deep waters installations to file oil spill contingency plans. In essence, the companies are needed to ensure that oil spill response appliances are readily available and sufficiently maintained while staffs are sufficiently trained. Similarly, the State organizations are necessitated to carry out continuous surveillances to ensure reaction capabilities are highly upheld. With regard to Gulf oil spill, numerous steps have been taken by the industry in order to improve safety mechanisms including joint forces in building and deploying rapid response containment system. In essence, these systems have an aim is to control the spillage.