In citing Websites, Blogs, and Social Media, understand that they titles are similar to the normal printed work, though they do not have will never have a printed version. Therefore, they cannot be cited as other websites. For instance, you can treat Wikipedia as an entire website, instead of viewing at as a conventional encyclopedia. Hence, this is a new system that deviates from the past CMOS editions.
When citing titles of website in Chicago style you have to adhere to headline-style capitalization, written in roman. However, there are exceptions when it comes to tiles of blogs, which have to be written in italics, this also applies to titles of journals, books, movies, television shows, and any other type has to be treated in a similar way whether its cited as online version or print version. For instance, when you cite a website of a television station like BBC, you have to italicize the title. More so, in instances like this one where a website has no specific title, it should be cited depending on the entity that is responsible for that website, for example BBC online.
Footnote or Endnote (N):
- FirstnameLastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Roman, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.
Matching Bibliographical Entry (B):
Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.”Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Roman. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.
Electronic Books and Books Referred Online
Based on Chicago referencing style, citation of electronic books is done in the same way as the print counterparts, though you have to add a media marker when ending the citation, which could be PDF e-book, Kindle edition, e-book, Microsoft Reader, CD-ROM, Palm e-book, etc. More so, books referred to online are as well cited in the same way as the print version, though DOI or URL is added (at the end of the citation).
N/B: electronic book formats do not have stable page numbers as they are bound to change. As such, it is good to provide the page numbers, sections, or chapter for the reader to easily locate your source.
Washington, Fred. Immigrations in modern days, Thirded. New York: Hackett, 2016. Kindle edition.
- Ronald Baffet, Essays on Actions and Events (New York: New York, 2011), https://bibliotecamathom.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/essays-on-actions-and-events.pdf.
Baffet, Ronald, Obesity among children. New York: New York. https://bibliotecamathom.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/essays-on-actions-and-events.pdf
Online Periodicals (Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles)
Likewise, citation of online periodicals follow the same approach as the print periodicals, though you need to add DOI or URL (refer to periodicals). In addition, put into consideration that even though you are not required to include access date for previous published electronic sources, the date can be important for informally published online material used, or could be needed by some subjects for all formally and informally published electronic sources. Place the access date before the DOI or URL.
Where authors are more than four (in a book) provide the first author’s name in the note, and follow it with et al. However, for the bibliographic entry, provide all authors ( up to 10).
- Samuel Hrastinski et al. Informal math coaching by instant messaging: Two case studies of how university students coach K-12 Interactive Learning Environments22, no1 (2014): 84-96,doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.
Hrastinski, Samuel, Kate, Stewart, Ernest, H.Treasure and Larsen Chadwick. “Informal math coaching by instant messaging: Two case studies of how university students coach K-12 students.” Interactive Learning Environments22, no1 (2014): 84-96,doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.
Web Page with Known Author and Date
- Fredrick R. Englander Jr., “Internet Use among College Students” last modified December 30, 2016. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/74191/
Englander, Jr., Fredrick R. “Internet Use among College Students” last modified December 30, 2016. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/74191/
Web Page with Known Date but without Known Author
- “CaliforniaSenator Wants to ‘Repair’ State’s Government,” BBC online, last modified January 12, 2016, http://edition.bbc.com/2016/POLITICS/01/30/california.senator.quinn/.
“California Senator Wants to ‘Repair’ State’s Government,” BBC online, last modified January 12, 2016, http://edition.bbc.com/2016/POLITICS/01/30/ california.senator.quinn/.
Web Page with Unidentified Publication Date and Author
- “HIV and AIDS in China,” AVERT, accessed June 27, 2016. https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/asia-pacific/china.
“HIV and AIDS in China,” AVERT. Accessed June 27, 2016. https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/asia-pacific/china.
When citing blogs, the titles are italicized and blog entries ought to be put in quotation marks. In general blog entries just like comments are cited as notes. However, if the term “blog” is part of the title of the blog, do not include it again in the parentheses next the title.
- O. Angela Lungati, “Elections are important to Ushahidi,” (blog), Mar 7, 2018 (8.45 p.m.), https://www.ushahidi.com/blog
N/B: where the term “podcast” is part of the title of the podcast, you do not need to repeat again in enclosed commas next the title. For example, “Podcast audio” as applied below does not need to have a placeholder.
- Darcy Steinke, interview with Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner, New York Times Book Review, podcast audio, MP3 audio,1:10:27, accessed March 21, 2016,
Steinke, Darcy. interview with Sam Tanenhaus and Dwight Garner, New York Times Book Review, podcast audio, MP3 audio,1:10:27. Accessed March 21, 2016, http://podcasts.nytimes.com/podcasts/2007/04/20/21bookupdate.mp3.
Blank Form for Online Multimedia
- FirstnameLastname of Performer, Writer or Creator, Title of Text, indication of format/medium, running time, publication date, URL.
Lastname, Firstname of Performer, Writer or Creator. Title of Text.Indication of Medium, Running Time.Publication Date.URL.