Audiovisual Recordings and Other Multimedia

This section details how citation of a television, film or any other audiovisual source is done. When citing these form of recorded media, normally you need to provide all the following details where possible: name of the individual who create the content recorded (could be writer, performer or composer), the title of the material in italics or quotation marks, the recording company or the publisher, identifying number, and the medium of storage(videocassette, DVD, CD), and the copyright of the material or production or performance date.  Recorded accessed from the internet should as well include the URL or DOI.

General format for Citing Television, Film, and Other Recorded Mediums in Chicago Style

The arrangement of the elements listed and if they should be part of the citation is based the source of the material and also if a section or the entire source is being cited. It also depends on whether a specific contributor is the center of that citation.

 Footnote or Endnote (N):

  1. FirstnameLastname, Title of Work, Format, directed/performed by FirstnameLastname (initial release year; City: Studio/Distributor, year of video release), Medium.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work.Format.Directed/Performed by FirstnameLastname.Original Release Year. City: Studio/Distributor, year of video release. Medium.



  1. Ali the Great, directed by James Peter Shamrock (1999; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2012), DVD.


Shamrock, James Peter, dir. Ali the Great. 1999; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2012. DVD.

Musical Recordings

The general guidelines of citing audiovisual also apply to music recordings. Where you cannot locate the recording date of the music, Chicago style recommends that you try to find out from the library catalog or from other sources. Normally, musical citations that do not have a date are not accepted. However, in cases where they have to be included “n.d.” can be used.


  1. Name of group or composer or performer, Title, Recording date, Recording Company or Publisher, Track Number on Name of Album, Year of Release, Medium.


  1. Bob Marely, “No woman no cry’s Blues #3,” recorded January 1980, track 4 on Revolution Columbia. compact disc.


Name of group or composer or performer. Title.Recording date.Recording Company or Publisher, Medium.

Marley, Bob. “No woman no cry #3.”Recorded January 1980.Track 4 on Revolution. Columbia. Compact disc.