PERIODICALS

Periodicals comprise of journals (both electronic and printed), magazines, and newspapers. When you cite these sources ensure that you provide enough information for the reader to find the resource in a library or a database. Therefore, it is necessary to provide publication dates: magazines and newspapers are usually serialized by day, month, and year; journals have the volume number, issue number, month or season and year.

An important distinction between notes and bibliographic entries in periodicals regards the way in which main details are separated. In notes, the main details are separated by commas. In the bibliography, these elements are separated by periods.

Journals

Notes and bibliographic entries for a journal are as follows:

Full name of author(s), article title, and journal title and issue information. Issue information refers to volume, issue number, month, year, and page numbers. Retrieval information and the date of access are also included for online works,.

Author’s Name:

Notes include the name of the author as listed in the article. Bibliographic entries, however, invert the name of the author.

Article Title:

Notes and bibliographies use quotation marks to set off the titles of articles within the journal.

 Journal Title:

Titles of a Journal may remove an initial “The” but should otherwise be given in full, capitalized (headline-style), and italicized.

Issue Information:

The volume number follows the journal title without  punctuation and no italics. The issue number (if it is given) is separated from the volume number with a comma and is preceded by “no.” The year appears in parenthesis after the volume number (or issue number if given). The year may be followed by a specific date, month, or season if given. Page information follows the year. For notes, page number(s) refer only to the cited material; the bibliography includes the first and last pages of the article.

N:

  1. Stella BeckerMacGeorge, “Evaluating the use of Facebook to increase student engagement and understanding in lecture-based classes.”Higher Education,69, (2015):303–313.

B:

MacGeorge, Stella Becker. “Evaluating the use of Facebook to increase student engagement and understanding in lecture-based classes.”Higher Education,69, (2015):303–313.

Electronic Journals

Citing electronic journals simply follows the same format for printed periodicals, which is explained in the Journals section. Additionally, entries include the DOI or URL (DOIs are preferred). The date accessed is not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources. Access date is required for different  reasons (e.g. by discipline, publisher, or instructor), the access date should appear immediately prior to the DOI or URL. If included, access dates should be separated by commas in notes or periods in bibliographical entries.

Dates:

Even if weekly or monthly magazines are numbered by volume or issue, they are  onlycited by date. When following the CMOS Note and Bibliography style, the year is presented as shown in below examples. When following the CMOS Author Date style, the date is essential to the citation and it is not enclosed in parentheses.

Page Numbers:

Citations for journal articles includes a specific page number. Inclusive page numbers for the entire article are often left in bibliographical entries, however, because the pages of the article are often separated by many pages of unrelated material. If page numbers are included, they should come after the date and be preceded by a colon.

N:

  1. Andrew E. Kaplan, “Social media: back to the roots and back to the future”. Journal of Systems and Information Technology.Vol. 14No. 2 (2012): 102,accessed March 24, 2017,https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/deb2/d91a0fc

.B:

Kaplan,  Andrew E. “Social media: back to the roots and back to the future.”Journal of Systems and Information Technology.Vol. 14No. 2 (2012): 102,accessed March 24, 2017,https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/deb2/d91a0fc

Magazines

Notes and bibliographic entries for magazines entails the following information:

Author’s name, article title (enclosed by quotation marks), magazine title (italicized), and date. Page numbers are included in notes but are omitted in bibliographic entries. Regular departments (or regularly occurring subsections) in a magazine are capitalized, but not put in quotation marks. For example, National Geographic is the magazine that regularly includes a department called Foods of the Region.

N:

Emma  Susilo, “Using Facebook and WhatsApp to leverage learner participation,” Education Magazine, March 2013, 15.

B:

Susilo, Emma. “Using Facebook and WhatsApp to leverage learner participation,” Education Magazine, March 2013.

Online Magazines

Notes and bibliographic entries for online magazines should follow the relevant examples for printed magazines. More so, online magazine entries should contain the URL at the end of the citation. If no stable URL exists, the name of the database can be substituted.

Note: In the examples below, Green Room is not placed in quotation marks because it is the department title rather than the article title.

Access Date:

Access dates are not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources. If an access date is required for other reasons (e.g. by discipline, publisher, or instructor), the access date should be included immediately prior to the URL. In notes, access dates are surrounded by commas and in bibliographic entries they are surrounded by periods.

N:

  1. Derick Smith, “Online Dating: Modern virtual relationships.” Cyber Room, Slate, March 4, 2012, http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.

B:

Smith, Derick. “Online Dating: Modern virtual relationships.” Cyber Room.Slate, March 4, 2012. http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.

Newspapers

Notes and bibliographic entries for newspapers should consist the following:

Name of the author (if listed), headline or column heading, newspaper name, month (often abbreviated), day, and year. Since issues may include several editions, page numbers are usually omitted. If an online edition of a newspaper is used as reference, the URL should be added at the end of the citation. Time stamps may be important to include when stories for unfolding events are modified.

Names of Newspapers:

If  its name begins  with “The,” this word is omitted. For American newspapers that are not well-known, a city name should be added along with the newspaper title (see below). Additionally, a state abbreviation may be added in parenthesis after the city name.

News Services:

News services, such as the Associated Press or the People’s Daily , are capitalized but not italicized and often appear in the author position of the citation.

Headlines:

Headlines should be capitalized using “headline style,” in which all major words are capitalized. Although many major newspapers prefer sentence style, the CMOS recommends headline style for consistency among various types of cited sources. Headlines presented entirely in full capital letters in the original are usually converted to headline-style upper and lower case in the citation.

Regular Columns:

Supposing  regular column is cited,  you need to provide the  column name  and the title of the article.

Editorials, Letters to the Editor, and Readers’ Comments:

Published editorials and letters to the editor should be treated generically, mostly withoutheadlines. Instead of a title, use “letter to the editor” [12.196].

Citing in Text:

Always cite newspapers in notes or parenthetical references and not in bibliographies. Supposing you fully document newspaperswithin the text of your work, then it is not necessary to citethem in bibliography.

N:

  1. Tina Dawood, “Geography professor lectors on effects of pollution,” Exponent (East Halem, IN), Jan. 13, 2013.

B:

Dawood, Tina. “Geography professor lectors on effects of pollution.” Exponent (East Halem, IN), Jan. 13, 2013