## Statistics in APA

When you include statistics in your paper, ensure that you include adequate information to enable the reader to have a good understanding of the study. Though the amount of information and data included entirely depends on the study, there are guidelines to be followed in APA style when representing statistical information:

• No references are needed or given for statistics except where the statistic is unusual, used untraditionally, or the main component of the article
• Do include formulas for known common statistics ( for example, mean, t test)
• Avoid repeating descriptive statistics within the text when they are already included in the table or figure
• Use phrases such as in order and respectively when listing series of statistics, it allows you to demonstrated the  link between the numbers in the series.

Punctuating statistics

Parentheses are used  to enclose statistical figures/values

…the results were statistically significant (p = .41) with each variables.

Parenthesesare used to enclose levels of freedom:

t(41) = 4.25

F(2, 82) = 1.81

Brackets are used to enclose limits of confidence intervals:

82% CIs [2.48, 2.5], [-5.0, 2.79], and [-6.13, 1.67]

Do not bold or italicize when you write the Greek letter,  just maintain the standard typeface. This is applied also to subscripts functioning  as identifiers and abbreviations not representing variables.

Boldface is used when writing vectors and matrices.

V, ∑

italicsare used for statistical symbols (which are not vectors and matrices):

t, F, N

an italicized, uppercase N  is used to represent a total population.

N = 185

An italicized, lowercaseis used to represent a sample of the population.

n = 23