Footnotes and Endnotes citations

Use of footnotes and endnotes are not recommended in APA since they are usually costly for publishers to print. Nonetheless, if it  is necessary to include explanatory notes for your work,  APA explains how two forms  (content and copyright) of footnotes can be used.

When using content or copyright footnotes, you start by inserting a number that is formatted in superscript, and follow it by any punctuation mark. Remember that footnote numbers cannot come before a dash (—), supposing they are inserted within a sentence in parentheses, insert the footnote in the parentheses.

Historians have examined—for many years[1]—the fossils for the early man.

.When you use the footnote function contained in the word processing program such as Microsoft Word, all the footnotes appear at the bottom of the page. It is also possible for the footnotes to appear at the final page of the document (normally this is below the reference page). The word “Footnotes” should be placed at the top of the page (where the footnotes are appearing) and center it. Indent five spaces from the beginning of the left margin of all the footnotes. Then, adhere to the usually double spacing of paragraphs.

1it is important to understand that fossils examination has been going on for over 100 years

Content Notes

The content notes when used offer additional information to the readers. However, when you provide these notes, focus just on the subject and limit the comments to one short paragraph.

Similarly, content notes can be used to direct readers to detailed information elsewhere in the document.

1 See Blackmann (2014), especially chapters 5 and 6, for an in-depth examination of this extraordinary phenomenon.

Copyright Permission Notes

Supposing you quote over 500 words of work that has been published, or if you think that you may infringe on “Fair Use” copyright laws, then you have to seek for official permission to quote that work from the author/s. The sources of the work will as well appear in the reference list.

.Observe the same formatting guidelines of content notes when noting the copyright permissions. Attach a photocopy of the authorization letter from the copyright owner.

If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information. You should also submit written permission along with your work. Begin the citation with “Note.”

Supposing you want to reproduce a graphic, table, chart or any other type of information, you need to present a special not below the item which underlines the copyright information. Include also written permission together with the work. Start the citation with the word “Note.”

Note.From “Title of the journal” by J. Clinton and Skinp, 2010, Journal of Business Ethics, 22, p. 379.Copyright 2010 by Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission.

[1]it is important to understand that fossils examination has been going on for over 100 years